Commonly used AMD terms

Advanced age-related macular degeneration
The last stage of age-related macular degeneration which manifests with the loss of central vision in one or both eyes resulting from damage to the macula, a small spot near the center of the retina.
Amsler grid
A grid of straight lines resembling graph paper. A dot is printed in the center of the grid. An Amsler grid is used to test for the onset of, and progression of, macular degeneration.
Substances, such as vitamin E, that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage, including those that lead to macular degeneration.
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study was a landmark clinical study completed by the National Eye Institute (NEI) in 2001 proved that taking a high-potency antioxidant and zinc supplement reduced the risk of progression in people with moderate-to-advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). AREDS is also the name used to describe vitamins that contain this antioxidant and zinc formula.
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 was the second landmark clinical study completed by the National Eye Institute (NEI) in 2013 that built upon the results from the original 2001 AREDS study. Based on the results of AREDS2, the NEI recommended an update to the original AREDS antioxidant and zinc formula.
A carotenoid the only known function of which in humans is to serve as a source of vitamin A. Beta-carotene is found in yellow-, red-, and orange-coloured fruits and vegetables, such as carrots. Beta-carotene may be beneficial to eye health. In deciding whether to include beta-carotene in a formulation designed to slow the development of advanced AMD, you and your doctor should balance potential benefit and harm of high-dose beta-carotene supplementation.
Central vision
That part of your vision that allows you to see objects that are straight ahead.
Yellow spots, or deposits, that form beneath the retina. They are a common change that occurs with age; the presence of medium-to-large drusen may be a sign of AMD.
Also known as atrophic macular degeneration, dry AMD is caused by aging and thinning of the retina and is characterized by the presence of yellow spots, known as “drusen,” in the macula. With dry AMD, vision gets worse over time.
A carotenoid that is found in the lens and retina, primarily in the macula. This important antioxidant also acts as a blue-light filter.
The part of the retina that is responsible for central vision and seeing fine detail.
Moderate-to-advanced age-related macular degeneration
Stages of AMD that may include the presence of large drusen, pigment changes in the retina, and/or vision loss resulting from damage to the macula.
National Eye Institute (NEI)
One of the U.S. government’s National Institutes of Health, the NEI conducts research on treating and preventing diseases that affect the eye or vision.
A physician medically trained in eye and vision care who can diagnose and treat complicated eye issues, perform surgical procedures such as LASIK, cataract and retinal surgery.
A healthcare professional who provides primary vision care, which includes diagnosing vision problems, prescribing glasses and medications, and testing for eye diseases and conditions.
The layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and receives the image formed by the lens.
Retina specialist
An ophthalmologist specializing in diseases of the retina.
Vitamin and mineral products that provide additional amounts of certain beneficial substances to your diet.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for normal vision, reproduction, embryonic development, growth, and immune function.
Vitamin C
A nutrient that acts as an antioxidant and plays an important role in biosynthesis of several components of connective tissue. It is found in certain fruits and vegetables; vitamin C is used as part of a nutrient formula that may help reduce the risk of AMD progression.
Vitamin E
An antioxidant found in oils, nuts, and other foods that may protect cells of the eyes.
Also known as exudative macular degeneration, wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels form and leak blood and fluid beneath the retina, causing it to distort or scar. Wet AMD progresses far more rapidly than dry AMD, with more severe effects.
A carotenoid found in fruits and vegetables. Zeaxanthin concentrates in the macula, where it protects against blue light and oxidative damage.
A trace element that influences cell metabolism through a variety of mechanisms and plays an integral role in maintaining normal ocular function.